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Relational (SQL) and NoSQL Databases

Nemanja Grubor

10 Feb 2021

6 min read

Relational (SQL) and NoSQL Databases
  • NoSQL

Introduction

In this article, I will write about Relational (SQL) and (NoSQL) databases. There are more than these two types of databases, but in this article, I want to cover these two types because Relational databases are very much the standard and are relevant for so many years. NoSQL databases are newer, although they existed since the late 1960s, but the name "NoSQL" was only coined in the early 21st century.

Relational (SQL) Databases

A relational database is a digital database based on the relational model of data, as proposed by Edgar Frank Codd in 1970. Many relational database systems have an option of using the SQL (Structured Query Language) for querying and maintaining the database.

This model organizes data into one or more tables (or "relations") of columns and rows, with a unique key identifying each row. Rows are also called records or tuples. Columns are also called attributes. Generally, each table/relation represents one "entity type". The rows represent instances of that type of entity and the columns representing values attributed to that instance.

Each row in a table has its own unique key. Rows in a table can be linked to rows in other tables by adding a column for the unique key of the linked row (such columns are known as foreign keys).

Part of this processing involves consistently being able to select or modify one and only one row in a table. Therefore, most physical implementations have a unique primary key (PK) for each row in a table. When a new row is written to the table, a new unique value for the primary key is generated; this is the key that the system uses primarily for accessing the table. System performance is optimized for PKs. Other, more natural keys may also be identified and defined as alternate keys (AK). Often several columns are needed to form an AK (this is one reason why a single integer column is usually made the PK). Both PKs and AKs have the ability to uniquely identify a row within a table. Additional technology may be applied to ensure a unique ID across the world, a globally unique identifier, when there are broader system requirements.

The primary keys within a database are used to define the relationships among the tables. When a PK migrates to another table, it becomes a foreign key in the other table. When each cell can contain only one value and the PK migrates into a regular entity table, this design pattern can represent either a one-to-one or one-to-many relationship. Most relational database designs resolve many-to-many relationships by creating an additional table that contains the PKs from both of the other entity tables – the relationship becomes an entity; the resolution table is then named appropriately and the two FKs are combined to form a PK. The migration of PKs to other tables is the second major reason why system-assigned integers are used normally as PKs; there is usually neither efficiency nor clarity in migrating a bunch of other types of columns.

Relationships are a logical connection between different tables, established on the basis of interaction among these tables. In order for a database management system (DBMS) to operate efficiently and accurately, it must use transactions.

Most of the programming within a RDBMS is accomplished using stored procedures (SPs). Often procedures can be used to greatly reduce the amount of information transferred within and outside of a system. For increased security, the system design may grant access to only the stored procedures and not directly to the tables. Fundamental stored procedures contain the logic needed to insert new and update existing data. More complex procedures may be written to implement additional rules and logic related to processing or selecting the data.

I think that people often overlook the importance of knowing formal theory behind relational databases, which is needed for relational database design. By that, I mean determination of Functional Dependencies and normalization of a database by using Normal Forms.

In relational database theory, a functional dependency is a constraint between two sets of attributes in a relation from a database. In other words, a functional dependency is a constraint between two keys.

Database normalization is the process of structuring a database, in accordance with a series of so-called normal forms in order to reduce data redundancy and improve data integrity.

Normalization entails organizing the columns (attributes) and tables (relations) of a database to ensure that their dependencies are properly enforced by database integrity constraints. It is accomplished by applying some formal rules either by a process of synthesis (creating a new database design) or decomposition (improving an existing database design).

I will shortly describe 4 Normal Forms, although there are more:
1. First Normal Form (1NF)
2. Second Normal Form (2NF)
3. Third Normal Form (3NF)
4. Boyce - Codd Normal Form (BCNF)

First Normal Form (1NF)

First normal form (1NF) is a property of a relation in a relational database. A relation is in first normal form if and only if the domain of each attribute contains only atomic (indivisible) values, and the value of each attribute contains only a single value from that domain.

Second Normal Form (2NF)

A relation is in 2NF if it is in 1NF and every non-prime attribute of the relation is dependent on the whole of every candidate key.

Third Normal Form (3NF)

A database relation is said to meet third normal form standards if all the attributes are functionally dependent on solely the primary key.

More simple, if there is a Transitive Functional Dependency, 3NF normalize that.

Transitive functional dependency is a dependency that is indirectly formed by two functional dependencies. For e.g. X -> Z is a transitive dependency if the following three functional dependencies hold true:
1. X->Y
2. Y->Z
3. X->Z
4. Y does not -> X
5. Z does not -> X

Boyce - Codd Normal Form (BCNF)

For a table to satisfy the Boyce-Codd Normal Form, it should satisfy the following two conditions:

  1. It should be in the Third Normal Form.
  2. for any dependency A -> B, A should be a super key.

Structured Query Language (SQL)

SQL is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS), or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system (RDSMS). It is particularly useful in handling structured data, i.e. data incorporating relations among entities and variables.

SQL offers two main advantages over older read–write APIs. Firstly, it introduced the concept of accessing many records with one single command. Secondly, it eliminates the need to specify how to reach a record, e.g. with or without an index.

Originally based upon relational algebra and tuple relational calculus, SQL consists of many types of statements, which may be informally classed as sub-languages, commonly: a data query language (DQL), a data definition language (DDL), a data control language (DCL), and a data manipulation language (DML). The scope of SQL includes data query, data manipulation (insert, update and delete), data definition (schema creation and modification), and data access control. Although SQL is essentially a declarative language, it also includes procedural elements.

NoSQL Databases

A NoSQL database provides a mechanism for storage and retrieval of data that is modeled in means other than the tabular relations used in relational databases. NoSQL databases are increasingly used in big data and real-time web applications. NoSQL systems are also sometimes called "Not only SQL" to emphasize that they may support SQL-like query languages or sit alongside SQL databases in polyglot-persistent architectures.

Motivations for this approach include: simplicity of design, simpler "horizontal" scaling to clusters of machines (which is a problem for relational databases), finer control over availability and limiting the object-relational impedance mismatch. The data structures used by NoSQL databases (e.g. key–value pair, wide column, graph, or document) are different from those used by default in relational databases, making some operations faster in NoSQL. The particular suitability of a given NoSQL database depends on the problem it must solve. Sometimes the data structures used by NoSQL databases are also viewed as "more flexible" than relational database tables.

Many NoSQL stores compromise consistency in favor of availability, partition tolerance, and speed. Barriers to the greater adoption of NoSQL stores include the use of low-level query languages (instead of SQL, for instance), lack of ability to perform ad hoc joins across tables, lack of standardized interfaces, and huge previous investments in existing relational databases. Most NoSQL stores lack true ACID transactions, although a few databases have made them central to their designs.

Instead, most NoSQL databases offer a concept of "eventual consistency", in which database changes are propagated to all nodes "eventually" (typically within milliseconds), so queries for data might not return updated data immediately or might result in reading data that is not accurate, a problem known as stale reads. Additionally, some NoSQL systems may exhibit lost writes and other forms of data loss. Some NoSQL systems provide concepts such as write-ahead logging to avoid data loss. For distributed transaction processing across multiple databases, data consistency is an even bigger challenge that is difficult for both NoSQL and relational databases. Relational databases "do not allow referential integrity constraints to span databases". Few systems maintain both ACID transactions and X/Open XA standards for distributed transaction processing. Interactive relational databases share conformational relay analysis techniques as a common feature. Limitations within the interface environment are overcome using semantic virtualization protocols, such that NoSQL services are accessible to most operating systems.

Conclusion

Like any other software development life cycle step, you must determine which technologies you will use. Database design is very important in applications that needs them, so it also depends on the type of application you are making.

Did you like this article?

Nemanja Grubor

Experienced in Oracle (SQL, PL/SQL, APEX) Database Development, Core PHP, and Delphi. He is currently working as a research analyst and educator (CentOS Linux, Oracle SQL, PL/SQL, APEX). He also has experience in tutoring (C++).

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